1.1 Introduction

The Hollywood Principle

When doing any metaprogramming, tracking changes to the runtime is a problem that you will encounter sooner or later.

Ruby offers programmers what are called "object lifecycle callbacks" to track such changes and respond to them. Worried that someone might override a method? Register a callback and you'll be notified when something happens. That's why it's called the "Hollywood Principle": you don't poll the runtime for changes; instead, the runtime calls you when something changes.

Example Code:

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Ruby offers a moderately comprehensive set of callbacks - like method_addded in the example above - allowing you to track many of the changes that can be made to a piece of code.

Tracking methods

The addition of a method to a class or module is a logical place to begin. method_added is an instance method on Module and consequently inherited into Class. When you're using it, you simply implement the method as an instance method on the class (or module) - so it's a self method, basically - and listen for the names of methods that are added.

The only information it receives from the runtime is the name of the method, in the form of a Symbol.

Lifecycle callbacks are simple enough to understand that you will understand it very quickly with a little practice. Here's an exercise for you to try it out - simply make the tests pass.


Make sure that method_missing is defined on Dojo itself and not on its instances.

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Tracking singleton methods is identical, except that you use the singleton_method_added lifecycle callback instead of method_added. singleton_method_added being of a more fundamental nature is defined on BasicObject.

The only interesting difference from method_added worth noting is that since singleton_method_added is itself a singleton method, it receives a callback - about itself - as soon as it's added.

Let's dive straight into an exercise.

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Singleton methods, but not Class methods

There's an important nuance that's worth understanding when dealing with singleton_method_added and method_added.

The most natural tack the mind takes with these two callbacks is to assume that method_added will observe instance methods and singleton_method_added, class methods. This, however, is not entirely true; Ruby's singleton object backs normal objects and contains object specific changes. For classes, these are class methods. But when adding a method to a single, regular object, adding instance methods to that object alone modifies the singleton object for that object.

Let me show you why by having you solve this exercise.

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This lesson is Copyright © 2011-2014 by Sidu Ponnappa and Jasim A Basheer